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Summary: The author divides this work into three sections. In the first section , he addresses "nationalism—or rather, nationalisms, since the word can be defined in several ways." The author specifically addresses what he calls "open nationalism" and "closed nationalism." The former is defined as "stemming from the optimistic philosophy of the Enlightenment and memories of the Revolution." The latter is "based on a pessimistic vision of historical evolution, the prevailing idea of decadence, and an obsession with protecting, strengthening, and immunizing collective identity against all agents of corruption, true or supposed, that threaten it." The second section of the book focuses on the relationship of closed nationalism to anti-semitism in France. The third section of the book addresses the relationship of Bonapartism and fascism in France. Finally, the author offers a section of case studies that includes figures related to French nationalism "with its variations and contradictions." [E. Zuelow]

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