Africa: Suggested Readings

Introductory note by Professor Young: The brief bibliography which follows includes both major nationalist texts, and analytical treatment of nationalism in Africa. The rise of anti-colonial nationalism in the 1950s sparked the first array of studies and statements by key nationalists. After independence, "nationalism" as analytical field faded from the scene, as few new major texts appeared, and students of African politics turned their attention to other topics. A new variant of nationalism appeared in the 1970s, with the importation of dependency theory from Latin America; this in turn faded when a deepening crisis of the African state became apparent by 1980. Nationalism in Africa rarely attracted much attention from the great figures influencing the study of nationalism more broadly. However, the surprising persistence of the African state system in the face of frequent state failure or even collapse attracted renewed attention; even where states became mere predators supplying few services to the citizenry, an affective attachment to the territorial entity seemed to persist.

The African as colonial subject was at once racialized as black (African), and territorialized by the container established by the colonial partition. Pan-Africanism emerged as a continental form of nationalism; some of its major works are included here. But liberation from colonial rule required territorial organization, which provided the dominant frame for nationalist expression. Another crucial form of solidarity, ethnicity, transformed and heightened by the colonial experience, is not included here; a remarkable aspect of ethnic consciousness in Africa is that, with only a few exceptions (Buganda, Oromo, Zulu), it does not really take the form of ethnonationalism. Comparative studies on nationalism are included only if they included significant reflection on nationalism in Africa.

Ackah, William B. Pan-Africanism: Exploring the Contradictions. Aldershot, New Hampshire: Ashgate, 1997.

Appiah, Kwame Anthony. In My Father's House: A Statement of African Ideology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Brass, Paul R. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison. London: Sage, 1991.

Breuilly, John. Nationalism and the State. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1982.

Cabral, Amilcar. Revolution in Guinea: An African People's Struggle -- Selected Texts. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972.

Coleman, James S. "Nationalism in Colonial Africa." American Political Science Review XLVIII (1954): Pp. 404-26.

———. Nigeria: Background to Nationalism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1958.

———. "Tradition and Nationalism in Tropical Africa." In New States in the Modern World, edited by M. Kilson, Pp. 3-36. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Crawford Young, and Thomas Turner. The Rise and Fall of the Zairian State. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

Deng, Francis M. War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in Sudan. Washington: Brookings Institution, 1995.

Diamon, Larry and Marc F. Plattner (eds.), ed. Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. Nations Negres Et Culture. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1960.

Emerson, Rupert. From Empire to Nation. The Rise of Self-Assertion of African and Asian Peoples. Cambridge: Harvard Univesity Press, 1960.

Hastings, Adrian. The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Herbst, Jeffrey. States and Power in Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Hodgkin, Thomas. Nationalism in Colonial Africa. London: F. Muller, 1956.

Joseph, R. Radical Nationalism in Cameroun: Social Origins of the Upc Rebellion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.

Kenyatta, Jomo. Facing Mount Kenya. London: Secker and Warburg, 1938.

Laitin, David D. Language Repertoires and State Construction in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Marx, Anthony W. Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of the United States, South Africa, and Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Mazrui, Ali. Towards a Pax Africana: A Study of Ideology and Ambition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Mazrui, Ali and Mazrui, Alamin M. The Power of Babel: Language and Governance in the African Experience. Oxford: James Currey, 1998.

Miles, William F.S. Hausaland Divided: Colonialism and Independence in Nigeria and Niger. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Nasser, Gamal A. Egypt's Liberation: The Philosophy of the Revolution. Washington: Public Affairs Press, 1955.

Nkrumah, Kwame. Speak of Freedom: A Statement of African Ideology. London: Heinemann, 1961.

Nyerere, Julius K. Ujamaa: . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968. Essays in Socialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968.

R. Cohen, and J. Middleton, ed. From Tribe to Nation in Africa. Scranton, PA: Chandler, 1970.

R. Ismagilova, and A. Kochin, ed. Ethnocultural Development of African Countries. Moscow, Russia: Academy of Sciences, 1984.

Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Washington: Howard University Press, 1972.

Senghor, Leopold Sedar. On African Socialism. New York: Praeger, 1964.

Smith, Anthony D. State and Nation in the Third World: The Western State and African Nationalism. Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books, 1983.

Thompson, Vincent Bakpetu. African and Unity: The Evolution of Pan-Africanism. London: Longman, 1969.

Toure, Sekou. Toward Full Reafricanisation. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1959.

W.R. Bascom, and M. Herskovits, ed. Continuity and Change in African Cultures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. Africa: The Politics of Independence. New York: Vintage Books, 1961.

Welch, Claude E. Dreams of Unity: Pan-Africanism and Political Unification in West Africa. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966.

William F.S. Miles, and David Rochefort. "Nationalism Versus Ethnic Identity in Sub-Saharan Africa." American Political Science Review LXXXV, no. 2 (1991): Pp. 393-404.

Young, Crawford. The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

———. "Evolving Modes of Consciousness and Ideology: Nationalism and Ethnicity." In Political Development and the New Resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by and Carl G. Rosberg David E. Alter. University of Virginia Press, 1994.

———. "Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Africa." In Understanding Nationalism, edited by and John Hutchenson Montarret Guiberney, Pp. 164-81. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

———. "Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Class in Africa: A Retrospective." Cahiers d'Etudes africaines 103, no. XXVI-3 (1986): Pp. 421-95.

———, ed. The Rising Tide of Cultural Pluralism: The Nation-State at Bay? Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

- M. Crawford Young
Professor Emeritus of Political Science
University of Wisconsin - Madison